RELIGION AND POST-CONFLICT PEACEBUILDING SYLLABUS
Mari Fitzduff, Brandeis University, 2010.
'To provide an overview of the positive possibilities for peacebuilding by faith groups in situations of conflict'
Those working, or interested in working in/on intrasocietal, international or global conflict situations with faith groups on post-conflict peacebuilding. Faith individuals or institutions who want to be more pro-actively engaged in working on post-conflict peacebuilding. Students interested in learning about the theories and practice of faith groups in PEACEBUILDING.
Most students have minimal knowledge about the causation theories of conflict, and of peacebuilding needs in post-conflict areas. Students realize their needs for further post-course intellectual work on the topic of post-conflict peacebuilding, and for supervised practice opportunities before undertaking sensitive peacebuilding work in difficult areas.
COURSE LENGTH:The syllabus is designed for twelve 3-hour classes. These classes can be divided into twenty-four 90-minute classes by separating stated objectives, readings, overheads and interactive activities into two lessons of 90 minutes each.
OBJECTIVES FOR PARTICIPANTS:
- To introduce the students to the current major frameworks of analysis for post-conflict work, particularly in situations where religious factors are important.
- To familiarize students with elementary tools for conflict analysis, and needs assessments in post-conflict areas.
- To introduce the class to the purposes of post-conflict work, and to explore the Socio Economic, Political, Security, Psychological, and Reconciliation challenges in Post-Conflict work.
- To enable them to understand and use the challenges and possibilities of theories of change models for faith groups in post-conflict settings.
- To assist their understanding of the role of leadership at all levels of society, and particularly faith leadership, to post-conflict work.
- To introduce them to Monitoring and Evaluation processes for post-conflict work.
Individual Written and Group Assignments
Two short essays (approximately three pages) will be required in response to the following questions:
- What are the major needs in post-conflict societies? How do you choose which needs to address?
- What are the major Theories of Change prevailing among institutions and individuals undertaking post-conflict work? Which ones are most relevant to faith groups and why?
- Group Case Studies. In groups of 3/4 you will undertake a case study (circa 5-6 pages) of a particular country, outlining the post-conflict coexistence interventions - both structural and psychocultural - that are needed in that country, and why. Then describe which intervention/s can be most usefully undertaken by faith groups, and why. Students will choose from a selection of countries currently in a post-conflict phase. Each group will present their case and their findings to the class in Session 11. 40 minutes will be available for presentation, and class questions and discussion. Order of presentations will be chosen by lottery. Groups are required, 3 days in advance of their presentation, to identify a particularly good journal article, web source or article or book chapter (6-8 pages) for members of the class to read in preparation for their presentation, and to send it to them.
- End of Term paper. Each student will prepare an end-of-term paper of 15-20 pages in which they will choose any intra societal or international conflict, study and analyze the conflict, and then design a positive intervention by a faith group, or faith groups that they will argue can help with post-conflict work in that situation. While writing the case study they will keep in mind not only post-conflict necessities, but also their understanding of theories of change, levels of leadership work, and the evaluation of the intervention/s. See Slide 32 for case study framework.
Students will be evaluated on the basis of the two assigned essays (15 % each), the Case study (20%) and the associated presentations, which are intended to give students experience of presenting in front of peers, fielding questions, and leading the resulting discussion, and the end of term paper (40 percent).
- To familiarize students with the differences between the 'new' wars and the 'old' wars.
- To familiarize students with the stages of a conflict from conflict prevention to the post-conflict stage.
Kaldor, Mary: New and Old Wars P 1-14 Stanford University Press. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=XVgVstFi0XUC&dq=new+wars+kaldor&printsec=frontcover&source=bn&hl.....
Brahm, Eric (2003) Conflict Stages http://www.beyondintractability.org/bi-essay/conflict-stages
Miall, H. (2004). Conflict transformations: A multi-dimensional task. In A. Austin, M. Fischer, & N. Ropers (Eds.) Transforming ethnopolitical conflict: The Berghof handbook (pp. 67-89). Wiesbaden, Germany: VS Verlag Fur Sozialwissenschaften. http://www.berghof-handbook.net/uploads/download/miall_handbook.pdfCASE STUDY: SRI LANKA: CIVIL WAR ALONG ETHNO-RELIGIOUS LINES: http://berkleycenter.georgetown.edu/subtopics/religion_and_conflict_case_sudies?subtopic=3
(PowerPoint slides 2.3,4.)
- To introduce the class to Conflict Analysis
- To give the students an opportunity to use conflict analysis as it applies to post-conflict work.
International Alert: 2004. Chapter 2 in 2 Conflict-sensitive approaches to development, humanitarian assistance and peace building: http://www.conflictsensitivity.org/resource_pack/chapter_2__266.pdf
Hamber, B. (1998). Chapter 1: The past imperfect: exploring Northern Ireland, South Africa and Guatemala in Hamber, B. (Ed.) Past imperfect: Dealing with the past in Northern Ireland and Societies in Transition (pp. 1-6). Derry/Londonderry, Northern Ireland: INCORE.Retrieved Online: http://www.brandonhamber.com/publications/Chap%201%20-%20SA,%20Guatemala%20&%20NI.pdf
Sukma, Rizka: (2007) Managing Peace in Aceh: The Challenge of Post-Conflict Peace Building. Centre for Strategic and International Studies, Jakarta, Indonesia http://www.ari.nus.edu.sg/docs%5CAceh-project%5Cfull-papers%5Caceh_fp_rizalsukma.pdf
UK Stabilization Unit (2008)Emerging UK Experience and Best Practice http://www.stabilisationunit.gov.uk/.../105_Stabilisation%20guide%20January%202009.docCASE STUDY: CRS WORK IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA http://crs.org/bosnia-herzegovina/projects.cfm
(PowerPoint slides 5,6.7)
- To introduce the class to the purposes of post-conflict work.
- To introduce the class to current major frameworks of action for post-conflict work.
Smith, Dan (2000) Towards a Strategic Framework for Peacebuilding: Getting Their Act Together: Overview report of the Joint Utstein Study of Peacebuilding http://www.regjeringen.no/upload/kilde/ud/rap/2000/0265/ddd/pdfv/210673-rapp104.pdf
Fitzduff, Mari. "Meta-Conflict Resolution." Beyond Intractability. Eds. Guy Burgess and Heidi Burgess. Conflict Research Consortium, University of Colorado ... http://www.beyondintractability.org/bi-essay/meta-conflict-resolution
Office of the Coordinator for Reconstruction and Stabilization United States Department of State (2005): Post-Conflict Reconstruction: ESSENTIAL TASKS. http://www.crs.state.gov/index.cfm?fuseaction=public.display&id=845541F4-EA4A-49BC-BDFC-53D8B8DE4865
UN Peacebuilding Commission (2008): Key insights, principles, good practices and emerging lessons in Peacebuilding http://www.un.org/peace/peacebuilding/Working%20Group%20on%20Lessons%20Learned/keyInsights/Synthesis%20Report%20with%2012June08%20Meeting%20Conclusions%20Final.pdfCASE STUDY: KENYAN PEACE INITIATIVES.
(Including the work of the Kenya peace and development network, the Wajir peace and development committee, the national council of churches of Kenya, and the Amani people's theatre) http://www.cdainc.com/cdawww/project_profile.php?pid=RPP&pname=Reflecting%20Peace%20Practice
(PowerPoint slides 8,9,10,11,12,13)
- To explore Socio Economic approaches to post-confict peacebuilding
- To explore Socio Political challenges, in particular politics and governance, to post-conflict work
Ball. Nicole. (2001) The challenge of rebuilding war-torn societies. In Crocker, C., Hampson, F.O., Aall, P. (Eds.) Turbulent Peace (pp. 719-736). Washington, D.C.: United States Institute of Peace Press.
Wolpe, Howard et al. (2004) Rebuilding peace and State capacity in War Torn Burundi. The Round Table, vol 93,No375,457-467. http://www.wilsoncenter.org/topics/docs/ACF8CC.pdf
Uvin, Peter, Cohen, Sarah: 2006 Building Civil Society in Post-Conflict Environments: From the Micro to the Macro http://www.wilsoncenter.org/topics/pubs/OCpaper.pdfCASE STUDY: NORTHERN IRELAND: RELIGIOUS ACTORS IN WAR AND PEACE http://repository.berkleycenter.georgetown.edu/NorthernIrelandConflictCaseStudy.pdf
- To explore the Security Challenges e.g. demobilization, disarmament, reintegration following post-conflict work.
- To explore cross cutting themes for post-conflict work, and timelines for such work.
Fusato, M. (2003): Disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration of ex-combatants. http://www.beyondintractability.org/m/demobilization.jsp
United Nations, Department of Peacekeeping Operations. (1999). Disarmament, demobilization and reintegration of ex-combatants in a peacekeeping environment: Principles and guidelines. http://www.un.org/Depts/dpko/lessons/DD&R.pdf
Buchanan, Cate and Widmer, Mireille (2006) Civilians, Guns and Peace Processes: Approaches and possibilities. Centre for Humanitarian dialogue http://www.hdcentre.org/publications?page=9
Theisson, G. (2004). Supporting Justice, coexistence and reconciliation after armed Conflict: Strategies for dealing with the Past. In A. Austin, M. Fischer, & N. Ropers (Eds.)
Transforming ethnopolitical conflict: The Berghof handbook (pp. 421-441). Wiesbaden, Germany: VS Verlag Fur Sozialwissenschaften.http://www.berghof-handbook.net/uploads/download/theissen_handbook.pdf
Institute for Inclusive Security (2997) Sustainable Peace: A Toolkit for Advocacy and Action http://www.huntalternatives.org/pages/87_inclusive_security_toolkit.cfmUNRISDCASE STUDY: SOUTH AFRICA: RELIGION AND DEMOCRATIC TRANSITION:
(PowerPoint slides 16,17)
- To explore Reconciliation Challenges: Justice v Peace, Remembering, and Forgiveness.
- Begin to explore possible role of faith groups as part of the above Strategic Framework:
Assefa, Hiskias: The Meaning of Reconciliation http://www.gppac.net/documents/pbp_f/
Religion & Peacebuilding: Religion & Peacebuilding Processes http://www.peacebuildinginitiative.org/index.cfm?pageId=1827
Rigby, Andrew: Forgiving the Past - Paths towards a culture of reconciliation. Centre for the Study of Forgiveness and Reconciliation Coventry University, UK. http://www.coventry.ac.uk/researchnet/external/content/1/c4/11/36/v1202125859/user/Forgiving%20the%20past.pdf
Barsalou, Judy. Trauma and Transitional Justice in Divided Societies. Washington, D.C.: United States Institute of Peace, 2005. 11pp. (JZ5584 .U6SR no.135) http://www.usip.org/files/resources/sr135.pdf
Bouta, Tsjeard, Kadayifci-Orellana, Abu-Nimer, Mohammed Abu-Nimer. 2005. Faith -Based Peace- building: Mapping and Analysis of Christian, Muslim, and Multi-faith actors. Clingendael Institute, Netherlands. And Salam Institute for peace and Justice, Washington,DC. http://www.clingendael.nl/publications/2005/20051100_cru_paper_faith-based%20peace-building.pdfCASE STUDY: COLOMBIA: RELIGIOUS ACTORS INSPIRING RECONCILIATION
(PP Slides 18,19, 20,)
- To explore the relevance of theories of change to post-conflict work.
- To explore theories of change as related to faith groups.
DAC Network on Conflict, Peace and Development Co-operation and DAC Network on Development Evaluation 2007An Approach to DAC Guidance For Evaluating Conflict Prevention And Peace building Activities (CPPB) Section on Theories of Change in pg 74-81 http://www.adb.org/Documents/Papers/DAC-Guidance/Approach-DAC-Guidance.pdf
Shapiro, I. (2006) Theories of change in conflict interventions. In Fitzduff, M. & Stout, C. Psychological approaches to war, conflict resolution and peace. Praeger Press.
Fisher, S., Ludin, J., & Williams, S., eds. (2000). Working with conflict: Skills and strategies for action. New York: Zed Books. Club of Madrid: http://www.thesharedsocietiesproject.clubmadrid.org/fileadmin/user_upload/_temp_/180708_Statement_Commitments_and_Approaches.pdfCASE STUDY: HEALING THROUGH REMEMBERING PROJECT, NORTHERN IRELAND.
http://healingthroughremembering.info/resources/reports/ (review activities)
(PowerPoint slides 21,22)
- An exploration of the role of leaders in peacebuilding
- Particular challenges of religious leaders in post-conflict settings, with an emphasis on Transformational versus Transactional leadership)
Abu-Nimer: Values of Peacebuilding and Nonviolence in Islam:Ideals and Reality http://www.p4peace.com/edisi/data/Values%20of%20Peacebuilding%20and%20Nonviolence%20in%20Islam%20-%20Abu%20Nim%85.pdf
Lederach, J. P. (1997) Building Peace: Sustainable Reconciliation in Divided Societies. http://www.beyondintractability.org/essay/peacebuilding/
Uvin, Peter, Cohen, Sarah (2006) Building Civil Society in Post-Conflict Environments: From the Micro to the Macro http://www.wilsoncenter.org/topics/pubs/OCpaper.pdf
Collaborative Development projects: Reflecting on Peace Practice http://www.cdainc.com/cdawww/project_profile.php?pid=RPP&pname=Reflecting%20on%20Peace%20Practice
Gormley-Heenan, Cathy, Peake, Gordon, Fitzduff, Mari (2004) From warlords to peacelords: Local Leadership Capacity in Peace Processes. UNU/INCORE http://www.incore.ulst.ac.uk/research/projects/wlpl/WlplFull.pdfCASE STUDY: LIBERIA: RELIGIOUS LEADERS, PEACEMAKING, AND THE FIRST LIBERIAN CIVIL WAR
(PowerPoint Slides 23, 24,25,26.)
- Relevant frameworks for faith based post-conflict reconciliation work
- Ethical standards in faith based peacebuilding.
Gopin, Mark (2002): Religion, Violence and Conflict Resolution: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/119170648/abstract?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0
Champain, P., Garcia, E., Killick, N., & Starling, S. International Alert. (1998). Code of conduct for conflict transformation work. http://www.international-alert.org/publications/pub.php?p=114
United States Institute for Peace: Religion and Peacemaking site. Read section on Afghanistan, Iraq, Iran and Pakistan. http://www.usip.org/religionpeace/index.htmlCASE STUDY: INTER RELIGIOUS DIALOGUE IN NIGERIA:
(PowerPoint slide 27)
- Evaluation and success in faith based peacebuilding
- Evaluating effectiveness in dialogue work.
Berns, J and Fitzduff, M: What is Coexistence and Why a Complementary Approach? http://www.brandeis.edu/coexistence/linked%20documents/What%20is%20Coex%20and%20Why_FINAL%20template.pdf
Church, Cheyanne and Rogers, Mark (2006) Designing for Results: Integrating Monitoring and Evaluation in Conflict Transformation Programs http://www.sfcg.org/programmes/ilr/ilt_manualpage.html
DAC Network on Conflict, Peace and Development Co-operation and DAC Network on Development Evaluation 2007An Approach to DAC Guidance For Evaluating Conflict Prevention And Peace building Activities (CPPB) Section on Evaluating Dialogue pg 84-89
Fitzduff, Mari (2007) Measuring Social Inclusion and Cohesion in the Challenges. , http://secint50.un.org/esa/socdev/sib/egm'07/documents/Mari_Fitzduff.pdfCASE STUDY: MOZAMBIQUE: RELIGIOUS PEACEBUILDERS BROKER END TO CIVIL WAR
(PowerPoint slides 28,29,30,31)
To test student learning on issues of faith based post-conflict peacebuilding
Presentation of group case studies (PowerPoint Slide 32)
To encourage effective and out of the box thinking by students on issues of faith based interventions in post-conflict work.
Designing/imagining 'blue sky Interventions,' based on faith groups, or on regional/national areas of conflict. Students will elicit both challenges and possibilities for interventions in post-conflict societies, without any restriction of resources for such work.
RELIGION AND POST-CONFLICT PEACEBUILDING SYLLABUS
(Small groups are usually no less than 3, and no more than 5. Each group appoints someone to feedback into larger group session)
Lesson 1. PowerPoint Slides 2.3,4.
- Ask students to talk together in small groups about the differences they have noted in their reading between 'new wars' and 'old' wars, using their feedback to develop the discussion.
- If the students are international students, from areas of conflict, ask them to discuss together in small groups the 'stage' on the curve, which is where they think their conflict lies. If the students live in more peaceful countries, ask them to brainstorm at least 6 intercommunal/international conflicts around the world that they are aware of. Divide students into small groups of 3 or 4, and ask them to name where they think the countries named are on the curve of conflict.
Use their feedback to talk about the often untidiness of the stages, and also the debate on the terminology discussion e.g. post-conflict, post violence, post settlement. Utilize the Sri Lankan case discussion for these discussions.
Lesson 2. PowerPoint Slides 5,6,7.
- Ask the students to work in small groups to brainstorm about the difficulties of conflict analysis, and use their feedback to discuss these.
- Introduce the 'Do No Harm' slide. Then ask the students to work in small groups on what they see as the possible 'dividers' and connectors' as in their case study of the work of Catholic Relief Services in Bosnia Herzegovina.
Lesson 3 PowerPoint Slides 8.9,10,11,12,13.
- Brainstorm with the students as to the purposes of post-conflict work? What is one trying to achieve through such work? Use purposes slide No 8 to add their ideas to the discussion.
- Show meta-conflict resolution slide on Power Point. Ask students to think about which element they think is most important, second most important, etc. in addressing a conflict.
Lesson 4. PowerPoint Slides 14,15.
- Ask the students to work in small groups to agree in which of the case studies studied so far i.e. Sri Lanka, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Kenya, Northern Ireland, has economic development been important, and why and use their feedback to continue the discussion with the larger group
- Ask the students to work in small groups to agree in which of the case studies studied so far i.e. Sri Lanka, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Kenya, Northern Ireland, has political development /governance been important, and why? Has it been more important than economic development, and if so why. Use their feedback to continue the discussion with the larger group
Lesson 5. PowerPoint Slide 16.
- Using a lottery, ask 4/5 students to talk for 5 minutes each, drawing from their readings, about why demobilization, disarmament, reintegration are important aspects of post-conflict work. Then ask 4/5 other students to talk about the difficulties of undertaking such work.
- Working in small groups, ask the students to discuss the report from the Institute for Inclusive Security to see how much they did, or did not, agree with it. Use both of the above exercises to discuss the relevance of the issues in the context of South Africa.
Lesson 6. PowerPoint slides 18,19, 20.
- Divide the class in two. Allocate the 'justice' focus to one set, and the 'peace' focus to the other. Ask them to work in pairs, and argue their case from the different perspectives i.e. which is most important and why in Post-conflict work
- Using the material from the case studies they have read previously about the work of faith groups in different situations, ask them to talk in small groups about the particular role of faith groups in post-conflict situations, and what they can offer.
Lesson 7 PowerPoint Slides 21,22.
- Ask the students to think individually which Theory of Change they think is most effective? Then ask them which TOC/s they think they would be best at using? Then ask them which TOC/s seemed to be most effective in the case of their case study, Northern Ireland?
- Ask the students to discuss in small groups why they think that religious leaders, or religious groups, can be useful in effecting change in post -conflict situations? Uses slide 22 and add to it from the students' feedback/discussion.
Lesson 8 PowerPoint Slides 23, 24,25,26.
- Introduce the Lederach Triangle, slide 23, and the RPP framework, and slide 24, checking how they see the relevance of these frameworks/papers to the role of religion in post-conflict peacebuilding.
- Review Transformative/Transactional framework, and ask them to share in groups their experiences of 'transformational' leaders of any kind. Following feedback, ask them to brainstorm the difficulties for religious leaders in being transformational.
Lesson 9 PowerPoint Slide 27.
- Ask students to work in small groups talking about what they learned about religion and post-conflict peacebuilding from the USIP case studies on Afghanistan, Iraq, Iran and Pakistan. Feedback to large group .
- Brainstorm with the students on what extra, if anything, would need to be added to the Code of Ethics that would be of particular relevance to religious groups and leaders either in the Northern Ireland case study, or other case studies?
Lesson 10 PowerPoint slides 28,29,30,31.
- Ask students to discuss in small groups the values of 'equality' diversity' and 'interdependence' in the Berns/Fitzduff paper to see which they think is most important to post-conflict work by the faith group whose work they have studied.
- Ask the students to design a mini-dialogue process within any of the case studies they have read, which takes into account the evaluation indices on the participant, program and social-political level.
Presentation of Case studies based on Slide 32 Framework. 40 minutes per group for presentation and questions.
Students will work in small groups designing a 'blue sky' intervention (i.e. where resources are not a problem) intervention by religious leaders or groups in agreed cases that they have studied, using the case study material as their basis for designing their intervention. Students will present the results of their work to the class.
WEB SITES OF RELEVANCE TO RELIGION AND POST-CONFLICT PEACEBUILDING:Students should familiarize themselves with these web sites.
Peacemakers Trust: Religion, Conflict Resolution and Peacebuilding: http://www.peacemakers.ca/research/Religion/
Peace building Institute. Religion and Peacebuilding: http://www.peacebuildinginitiative.org/index.cfm?pageId=1781USIP
Center for Post-Conflict Peace and Stability Operation: http://www.usip.org/peaceops/index.html
USIP (United States Institute for Peace) Post-Conflict Activities: http://www.usip.org/issue-areas/post-conflict-activities
Berkeley Center for Religion, Peace and world affairs: Case studies on religion and Conflict: http://berkleycenter.georgetown.edu/projects/case-studies-on-religion-and-conflict
Coward G Harold, Smith, Gordon, Eds. (2004). Religion and Peacebuilding. SUNY Press: http://books.google.co.uk/books? id=AlfrHagjAA8C&dq=religion+and+peacebuilding&printsec....
USAID (United States Agency for International Development) Peace Building and Conflict Management: http://www.usaid.gov/our_work/cross-cutting_programs/conflict/focus_areas/peace_building.html
Conciliation Resources: http://www.c-r.org
ACCORD (The African Centre for the Constructive Resolution of Disputes): http://www.accord.org.za
Collaborative Development Action: Reflecting on Peace Practice: http://www.cdainc.com/cdawww/project_profile.php?pid=RPP&pname=Reflecting%20Peace%20Practice
World Bank Reconstruction and Development: http://www.worldbank.org/conflict
The Initiative For Inclusive Security: http://www.womenwagingpeace.net
DiFID/CHASE Department for International Development /Conflict, Humanitarian and Security Department site of UK Government: http://www.dfid.gov.uk/aboutDFID/organisation/conflicthumanitarianassistance.asp
The International Center for Transitional Justice: http://www.ictj.org/en/index.html
United Nations Peacebuilding Portal: http://www.peacebuildingportal.org/
Global Peacebuilders Site: http://www.globalpeacebuilders.org/en.html
United Nations Peacebuilding Commission: http://www.un.org/peace/peacebuilding/
International Crisis Group: http://www.icg.org (If you are interested in the details and analysis of most of the various conflicts in the world, I suggest you sign up for their email newsletter)
AICPR (Alliance for international Conflict Prevention and resolution): http://www.aicpr.org (If you are interested professionally in the field, you are encouraged to join this as members, as it contains valuable information about jobs in the field, etc which are only sent to members)