Religion and Economic Development
Edward P. Antonio
This course is an introduction to and an exploration of the relationship between religion and economic development. As well as considering the challenges and problems religion poses for development the course also examines how religion does not always obstruct but supports and enhances international development. The course provides the conceptual tools for examining the common interest in human well being shared by both economic development and religious beliefs and practices. Exploring this relationship entails investigating how both development and religion can potentially refit each other to function more effectively to improve human well-being in the complex structures of global interdependent economic and political systems. Special attention will be given to some of the following themes: 1) secular and religious theories of development; 2) religion and economic growth; 3) basic issues in religion and development; 4) the social teachings of Christianity and Islam; 5) the structure and functions of Faith-based NGOs, and 6) the ways in which religious people both 'consume' development and contribute to national development through their formal and informal activities.
Course Objectives and Learning Outcomes
- To introduce students to the social teachings of Islam and Christianity with special reference to the question of development: Outcome — by the end of course students should be able to demonstrate a coherent understanding of the social teachings of Christianity and Islam and apply them to the work of religion in development.
- To provide a critical understanding of the distinctive role and contribution of religion to international development: Outcome — as stated above
- To establish and define the many areas of possible and actual collaboration between religion and development: Outcome — by the end of the course students should be able explain and demonstrate why religion and international development are not incompatible by providing concrete examples of areas of possible and actual collaboration.
- To help students acquire the critical and interdisciplinary knowledge and skills necessary for identifying and effectively addressing basic issues and problems in religion and international development: Outcome — by the end of the course students should be able to use tools from religious studies, theology and the social sciences to identify and critically analyze basic issues such as proselytization, state regulation of Faith-Based Non-Governmental Organizations, gender, corruption, governance, etc.
- To provide resources for students interested in this area to pursue and deepen their understanding of religion and development by making available learning opportunities: Outcome — by the of the course students should be able to do independent research by gathering and evaluating resources and materials relevant to religion and international development.
- To introduce students to the structure, status, functions, operations, and goals of Faith-Based NGOs (FBNGOs) as agents of development: Outcome — by the of the course students should be able describe, explain and analyze the nature, functions and problems of FBNGOs both in the specific context of their individual and collective operations, and in the larger context of their relationships with other development players.
- To equip students for employment in FBNGOs and other ethically based private, non-profit sectors of international development: Outcome — by the end of the course students should (a) have a clear and robust sense of what working in religion and development entails, and (b) be able demonstrate competence and expertise to work in the field.
Course Requirements and Assignments:
All required readings are underlined.
Graduate Students: Ph.D. and MA students are required to complete two major papers for this course. The first paper of 20 pages for Ph.D. students and 15 pages for MA students is due at the end of the fifth week of the course. The paper must address one of the following topics:
- The role of religion in economic growth. In what ways, if any, does religion contribute to or inhibit economic growth?
- Describe and critically compare and contrast 'religious' and 'secular' approaches to the problem of corruption in international development.
- In what ways is gender a factor for success or failure in the relationship between religion and development?
- Undergraduate Students: Students are required to write a 15 page paper critically comparing 'religious' and 'secular' notions of development or a paper describing and critically analyzing the social teachings of one of the religious traditions studied in this course.
- Précis. All students are required write four one page critical summaries and evaluations of an essay or book of his or her choice from the assigned readings. These summaries are due at the end of weeks 2, 6, 8 and 10.
Week 1: Theories of Development
Classical and Contemporary Theories of Development
- Development as Modernization
- Dependency and Underdevelopment
- Capabilities Approaches
- Feminist Theories of Development
Readings for week 1:
- Richard Peet, & Elaine Hartwick, Theories of Development: Contentions, Arguments, Alternatives (Second Edition). New York: The Guildford Press, 2009, chapters 2-5; and on feminist theories of development read chapter 7. Also Jane S. Jaquette, (ed.) Women and Gender Equity in Development Theory and Practice: Institutions, Resources, and Mobilization. Duke University Press, 2006.
- Magnus Blomstrom & Bjorn Hettne, Development Theory in Transition: The Dependency Debate and Beyond: Third World Responses. London: Zed Books, 1984, chapters 1-4; 8 & Conclusion.
- Amartya Sen, Development as Freedom. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.
- Arturo Escobar, Encountering Development: The Making and Unmaking of the Third World. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1994.
- Ronald Inglehart and Wayne E. Baker, 'Modernization, Cultural Change, and the Persistence of Traditional Values', American Sociological Review, 2000.
Week 2: Religious Conceptions of Development
- Human Flourishing
- Moral/Spiritual development
- Salvation and Well-being
Readings for week 2:
Faith traditions and development concepts and practices: background papers. These papers are found at http://www.rad.bham.ac.uk/index.php?section=47
Week 3: Religion and Development: Conflict or Collaboration?
- Secularization and Development
- Weber's Thesis: the Protestant/Religious Ethic and the Spirit of Development
- Religion as an agent of Globalization
Readings for week 3:
- Jeffrey Haynes, Religion and Development: Conflict or Cooperation? Palgrave Macmillan 2007.
- Severine Deneulin with Masooda Bano, Religion in Development. London: Zed Books, 2009.
- Max Weber, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism: and Other Writings. Peter Baehr (ed. & Trans.) Gordon C. Wells (Trans.) Penguin Classics, 2002.
- Pippa Norris, Ronald Inglehart, Sacred and Secular: Religion and Politics Worldwide. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.
- Zsolt Becsi, 'Does wealth imply secularization and longevity?' Journal of Money, Credit & Banking, February 1, 2010.
- Johan Verweij, Peter Ester and Rein Nauta 'Secularization as an Economic and Cultural Phenomenon: A Cross-National Analysis', Society for the Scientific Study of Religion, 1997.
- Eric Kaufmann, 'Human Development and the Demography of Secularization in Global Perspective'. Interdisciplinary Journal of Research on Religion', 2008 Volume 4.
- Charles K. Wilber and Kenneth P. Jameson, 'Religious values and social limits to development,' World Development. Volume 8, Issues 7-8, July-August 1980, Pages 467-479.
Week 4: Religion and Economic Growth
- The Null hypothesis (religion is uncorrelated with/to economic growth)
- Religiosity and economic performance: cause and effect?
- The Religious Economics of Development (how religion finances development)
- Relevant Variables
Readings for week 4:
Read Everything on this list.
- Rachel M. McCleary, 'Religion and economic development.' Policy Review April, 1, 2008
- Albino Barrera, Economic Compulsion and Christian Ethics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005. Read this selectively.
- Robert J. Barro and Rachel M. McCleary, 'Religion and Economic Growth across Countries', American Sociological Review, 2003.
- Marcus Noland, 'Religion and economic performance,' Institute for International Economics, Washington, DC, USA. http://www.iie.com/publications/wp/03-8.pdf
- Rachel M. McCleary and Robert J. Barro 'Religion and Economy', Journal of Economic Perspectives. Vol. 20, No. 2, Spring 2006
- Robert J. Barro, 'Spirit of Capitalism: Religion and Economic Development'. Harvard International Review, Vol. 25, 2004
Week 5: Issues in Religion and Development (1)
- Defining and Measuring Corruption
- Corruption as an 'Economic Activity'
- Corruption and the Politics of Development
International Conventions Against Corruption
UN Convention Against Corruption
OECD Anti-Bribery Convention
The International Anti-Corruption Conference
- UN Convention Against Corruption
Readings for week 5:
- 'Religions, ethics and attitudes towards corruption in India'. Workshop held on 28th-29th January, 2010 at the University of Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India Report on the workshop is at: http://www.rad.bham.ac.uk/?section=30#mod_322
- This archive contains many useful materials on a variety of topics pertinent to religion and development)
- Insa Nolte, Nathaniel Danjibo & Abubakar, Oladije, 'Religion, Politics and Governance in Nigeria' (RAD: Religion and Development Research Programme, Working Paper 39, 2009, pp125). http://www.rad.bham.ac.uk/files/resourcesmodule/@random454f80f60b3f4/1269512095_working_paper_39_for_the_web___2__2_.pdf
- Heather Marquette, & Gurharpal Singh, 'Whither Morality? Disciplinary Secularism in the Political Economy of Corruption in Developing Countries'. (Paper prepared for the 102nd American Political Science Association (APSA) Annual Meeting, Philadelphia, 31 August - 2 September 2006 http://www.odi.org.uk/events/g8_07/background_docs/marquette_singh_political_science_corruption_secularism.pdf
- Douglas Beets, 'Global Corruption and Religion: An Empirical Examination', Journal of Global Ethics, Volume 3, Issue 1 April 2007; pp. 69 - 85.
- Chloe Schwenke, Reclaiming Value in International Development: The Moral Dimensions of Development Policy and Practice in Poor. Praeger, 2009
Links:Transparency International http://www.transparency.org/global_priorities/international_conventions
The International Anti-Corruption Conference http://www.12iacc.org/index.php
UN Convention Against Corruption http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CAC/index.html
OECD Anti-Bribery Convention http://www.oecd.org/document/20/0,3343,en_2649_34859_2017813_1_1_1_1,00.html
Week 6: Issues in Religion and Development (2)
Religion and Women in Development
- Gender as a Development Issue
- Gender, Status and Decision-making in the Religious family
- Religion, Female labour, and Female agency
- Capacity Building, Empowerment, and Women's Participation in Development
- Women, Religion, Reproduction and Development
Readings for week 6:
- Prabir C. Bhattacharya, 'Economic Development, 'Gender Inequality, and Demographic Outcomes: Evidence from India.' Population Council, 2006.
- Emma Tomalin, 'Gender Studies Approaches to the Relationship between Religion and Development' pp.1-43. http://www.rad.bham.ac.uk/files/resourcesmodule/@random454f80f60b3f4/1202734475_WP8.pdf
- Martha Nussbaum & Jonathan Glover (eds.) Women, Culture and Development: A Study of Human Capabilities. Oxford University Press, 1995.
- Tamsin Bradle,Challenging the NGOs: Women, Religion and Development in India. Tauris Academic Studies, 2006.
- By Theodora Foster Carroll, Women, Religion, and Development in the Third World. Praeger Publishers, 1983
Week 7: Christianity and Development
- Spiritual and Material Development (Human Flourishing)
- The Ethics of Charity
- Christianity and Social Welfare
- Christianity and Money (ancient and modern views)
Readings for week 7:
- 'Caritas in Veritate/ Charity in Truth'— Encyclical Letter from Pope Benedict the XVl (July 7, 2009).
- Edward J. Martin, 'Liberation Theology, Sustainable Development, and Postmodern Public Administration.' Latin American Perspectives, Vol. 30, No. 4, 69-91 (2003).
- David J. O'Brien & Thomas A. Shannon (eds.) Catholic Social Thought: The Documentary Heritage. Orbis Books, 1992.
- John R. Pottenger, 'Liberation Theology's Critique of Capitalism: the argument from Gustavo Gutierrez.' Southeastern Political Review, Volume 17 Issue 2, Pages 3-31.
- Harold T. Lewis, Christian Social Witness. Cowley Publications, 2001.
- Walter Rauschenbusch, Christianity and the Social Crisis in the 21st Century: The Classic That Woke Up the Church. HarperOne, 2008.
Week 8: Islam and Development
- Spiritual and Material development
- The Ethics of Charity
- Islam and Social Welfare
- Finance and Economics (ancient and modern views)
Readings for week 8:
- John L. Esposito (ed.)Islam and Development: Religion and Sociopolitical Change. Syracuse University Press, 1980.
- Mohammad Mansoor Khan & M. Ishaq BhattiDevelopments in Islamic Banking: The Case of Pakistan. Palgrave Macmillan, 2008 (read the Introduction and the whole of chapter 2)
- Javaid Saeed, Islam and Modernization: A Comparative Analysis of Pakistan, Egypt, and Turkey. Praeger, 1994; (read chapters 4-8. Graduate Students read the whole book).
- Rafik Issa Beekun, Islamic Business Ethics.International Institute of Islamic Thought, 1997.
- Masudul Alam Choudhury, The Universal Paradigm and Islamic World Systems: Economy, Society, Ethics and Science. World Scientific Publishing Company, 2007: chaps 1-7; MA and Ph.D. read the whole book.
Week 9: Faith-Based NGOs (1)
- Theory and Overview of FBNGOs
- The Structure of FBNGOs
- The Status of FBNGOs
- The Function and Operations of FBNGOs
Readings for week 9:
- Gerard Clarke & Michael Jennings, Development, Civil Society and Faith-Based Organizations: Bridging the Sacred and the Secular, Palgrave Macmillan, 2008).
- Erica Bornstein, The Spirit of Development: Protestant NGOs, Morality, and Economics in Zimbabwe. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2005.
- Laurie A. Occhipinti, Acting on Faith: Religious Development Organizations in Northwestern Argentina. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2005.
- Linda Kurti, Making Space to Breathe: Values, Identity and Accountability in a Faith-based NGO, VDM Verlag, 2008.
- Fred Kniss and David Todd Campbell, 'The Effect of Religious Orientation on International Relief and Development Organizations', Society for the Scientific Study of Religion 1997.
- Robert Wuthnow, Boundless Faith: The Global Outreach of American Churches, University of California Press, 2009.
- Faith-Inspired Organizations and Global Development Policy: A Background Review "Mapping" Social and Economic Development Work in Southeast Asia' http://berkleycenter.georgetown.edu/publications/faith-inspired-organizations-and-global-development-policy-a-background-review-mapping-social-and-economic-development-work-in-southeast-asia December 14, 2009 (This is from the Berkley Center Religion, Peace and World Affairs)
- 'Faith Inspired Organizations and Global Development in Latin America' http://repository.berkleycenter.georgetown.edu/Berk_LatAm_Backgroundreport.pdf
Week 10: Faith Based NGOS (2)
- Catholic Relief Services http://www.crs.org/?utm_source=google-grant&utm_medium=cpc&utm_campaign=catholic-keywords
- World Vision International http://www.wvi.org/wvi/wviweb.nsf/maindocs/4E916B17FC75D749882573640065CE08?opendocument
- Mennonite Central Committee http://mcc.org/about/welcome
- UMCOR http://new.gbgm-umc.org/umcor/
- Islamic Relief http://www.islamicreliefusa.org/home
- International Islamic Charitable Organization www.iico.net
- Muslim Hands www.muslimhands.org
- Human Assistance and Development International www.islamicity.org/hadi
Readings for week 10:
Readings for this week involve analyzing the resources in the websites listed below and in the course unit above.
- HRH Global Resource Center http://www.hrhresourcecenter.org/taxonomy/term/118
- GUIDELINES FOR ENGAGING FBOs AS AGENTS OF CHANGE © UNFPA 2009 http://www.unfpa.org/culture/docs/fbo_engagement.pdf
- Directory of Faith Based NGOs http://worldfaithorgs.blogspot.com/2009/12/faith-based-non-governmental.html
- Report on the Involvement of Faith-Based Organizations in the Global Fund www.theglobalfund.org
- The Union of NGOs of the Islamic World http://www.theunity.org/en/index.php?limitstart=8
- Muslim NGOs and Charities http://www.ngoworldpk.com/knowledge-bank/muslim-ngos-and-charities.htm
Week 11: Project 1 — Secular and FBNGOs
Having learnt about the structure and role of FBNGOs, all students will be required to write a project paper that examines the programmatic relationship between these NGOs and secular development agencies in terms of (a) indifference, competition, conflict and co-operation) or (b) between FBNGOs and the State (in relation to the distribution of resources, governance or attitudes to politics, the problem of compliance or resistance to state regulation of NGO participation in development projects.
Week 12: Project 2 — Comparative Analysis of two or more FBNGOs from different religious traditions
Students will compare and contrast the 'ideologies', beliefs and functions of at least two FBNGOs from two different religious traditions of their choice. The project requires an in-depth analysis of the chosen traditions and must include both extensive literature review and sustained theoretical engagement with the material.
Week 13: Project 3 — Analyzing Development Issues in the work of FBNGOs
Building on work done in weeks 5 and 6 on corruption and gender students will identify, define, and analyze instances of these problems in the work of one or more FBNGOs.
Week 14: Project 4 — Principles of Islamic Finance in International development
Students will do an extended project on the principles of Islamic finance and the role they play in international development.
Week 15: Project 5 — Governance and Regulation of FBNGOs
Students will do an extended project on governance and State regulation of FBNGOs in a specific country of their choice.